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Rockefeller Archive Center;
This report focuses on research I conducted at the Rockefeller Archive Center (RAC) in March 2017 in support of my current book project, The Urban International: Design and Development from the Marshall Plan to Microfinance. The Urban International is a political, cultural, and intellectual history of the global dissemination of urban design and international development concepts since 1945, with a focus on the role of philanthropic foundations, universities, and international organizations. After World War II, cities around the world were physically transformed by economic concepts and design principles pioneered in the United States and Western Europe. Brasília, Brazil's modernist capital, and Chandigarh, India's first post-independence planned city, are well-known examples of European design concepts transferred to the global South by a transnational class of architects and planners. Most such undertakings, however, were of a more modest scale and often financed by philanthropic and international organizations. By investigating a range of programs sponsored by organizations including the UN, UNESCO, the World Bank, the Ford Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation, The Urban International reconstructs how ideas about the design and management of North Atlantic cities influenced, and were influenced by, development projects in the global South. The study asks how urban planners, architects, consultants, academics, public officials, and grassroots activists circulated ideas about how cities should look, who counted as urban citizens, and who should have access to public space and public resources. Those guiding questions are situated in an examination of the shift from modernization projects to neoliberal development in cities around the world between 1945 and the present. The same people and organizations directed and funded development projects in the global South and urban revitalization projects in North Atlantic cities, and this project aims to demonstrate that their work was one conduit through which neoliberal ideas moved between cities around the world.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
In 1973, one of the last American commissioners of the Sino-US Joint Commission on the Rural Reconstruction of China, Bruce H. Billings, wrote in his final report on the legacy of the Commission: "Because the Taiwan story is largely a success story, I believe that professionals in the development business should spend time studying the development history of the island " The success story was the "Taiwan miracle." Since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, Taiwan transformed itself from a former Japanese colony primarily exporting rice and sugar to a "developed" nation with a seven billion USD gross domestic product (GDP) in 1972. Over the course of twenty years, starting in 1950, nominal GDP rose an astonishing 2700%. A large reason for this rapid growth was the development project initiated by the United States and international organizations and carried out by the "professionals in the development business."
Institute of Development Studies (IDS);
A study indicating that the changes in the ecosystem of philanthropies in international development are the result of adaptation to global pressures that independently influence international development practices and philanthropic practice, combined with local practices. These global pressures come from a number of sources: increasing economic inequality that comes with increasing economic growth; a shift to more holistic ideas of development; a decrease in government and bilateral aid from traditional donor countries; and the emergence of aid funding and transfer of development practices from the BRICS countries.
Global Public Policy Institute;
This study by an independent think tank in Germany takes a look at the role of philanthropic foundations on the international development scene.
Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York;
This paper is based on the premise that local populations? engagement in development processes is a key factor to increase chances of sustainable economic and social development. In this context, we present collaboration with community philanthropy organizations as a viable strategy for international development organizations to engage civil society in the advancement and sustainability of development goals. This is done by presenting an overview of the development sector, as well as the added-value of community philanthropy. Then practical lessons and challenges are drawn from stories of different community philanthropy and international development organizations that have experience working together.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
This essay charts the career of the entomologist and popular author Marston Bates (1906-1974) within the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) between 1935 and 1952. Today, Bates is best remembered as a science communicator. Publishing over a dozen books on natural history and the environment, he helped bring ecological ideas to broader public audiences during the 1950s and 1960s. Not simply a popularizer of contemporary scientific concepts, Bates stood out for his critical commentary on the environmental problems of economic development, conservation, and global population growth, as well as the need for more integrative, cross-disciplinary approaches to understanding humans in nature. Long before becoming a public intellectual, however, he worked for the RF as a mosquito specialist, serving as director of International Health Division malaria and yellow fever laboratories in Albania, Egypt, and Colombia during the 1930s and 1940s. Bates' mid-career shift from researching mosquito ecology to writing about human ecology may seem to be a sudden left turn. A closer look at the archival record reveals the pivotal role played by the Rockefeller Foundation in shaping Bates' career trajectory and ideas about the environment. Furthermore, placing Bates' work in the context of his time with the RF reveals connections between twentieth-century U.S. environmental thought and international health projects.
This note gives guidance on using International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) data to trace aid flows from donor treasuries to their final end use. Traceability in IATI works by following the money as it flows from organization to organization through the development implementation chain. Provided that all organizations publish their information, it is possible to assess how much of the total funding at the beginning of the implementation chain is spent on goods and services, and where the money is spent. See also Tracing US Development Flows.
Carsey School of Public Policy at The University of New Hampshire;
As outlined in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, there is an urgent need for mechanisms that effectively scale proven interventions for tackling some of humanity's toughest challenges (United Nations 2015). While there are exemplary models that have proven to be highly effective, there are relatively few examples that have achieved large-scale replication.
Rockefeller Archive Center;
The Rockefeller Archive Centre (RAC) is a very rich source of information on the history of family planning and population control in Fiji in the 1960s and early 1970s. The RAC holds files relating to a multitude of organisations great and small that looked to Rockefeller-funded organisations such as the Population Council for advice and/or financial support. Therefore, it is a great resource for analysing the work of voluntary associations, such as the Fiji Family Planning Association (FFPA), which do not always have their own centralised archive, and provide information on discussions beyond the official publications of intergovernmental development organisations such as the South Pacific Commission (SPC). Through these files, it was possible to trace the evolution of the debate around the promotion of family planning in Fiji. In the 1950s, colonial officials in Fiji were preoccupied with demographic disparities between the two largest ethnic groups in Fiji – Fijians and Indo-Fijians. The Population Council files consulted demonstrate that in the 1960s and early 1970s the rationale for introducing family planning in Fiji changed to addressing total population in line with international ideas of demographic transition theory and the need for global population control, although this did not lead to a total departure from colonial thinking. Beyond the files on family planning, the RAC also holds information on other maternal and child health programmes that further demonstrate the uneasy interface between colonial and international health after the Second World War.
International Development Committee, House of Commons;
The House of Commons began an inquiry into the work of private foundations in July 2011. It decided to focus on foundations specifically, rather than wider philanthropic flows (e.g. corporate giving). Key issues that were explored included: the role of foundations in development; their relations with DFID and multilateral organisations, including the effectiveness of co-ordination and the avoidance of duplication; and their accountability. The House of Commons also wished briefly to examine the role and influence of high profile advocates on international development, whether philanthropists such as Bill Gates and George Soros, or celebrities including pop singers and actors.
European Foundation Centre (EFC);
Closing civil society space is a growing trend, impacting civic actors in countries throughout the world. This paper examines how the trend effects development funders and actors, and how they are responding. Questions explored include: what are funders doing to engage around re-opening space for civil society? How are they adapting? What are the impacts of the development community's approach to civil society as a whole? The European Foundation Centre and the Funders' Initiative for Civil Society have come together to develop better insight into these questions and to increase awareness of the threats to civil society.